Osteoarthritis of Bone Hyperplasia Pain Relief Patch treatmen by self-heating pain relief patch。Arthritis etiology of complex, mainly with inflammation, autoimmune reaction, infection, metabolic disorders, trauma, degenerative diseases and other factors.According to the cause of arthritis can be divided into rheumatoid, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic, osseous and purulent.
Osteoarthritis of Bone Hyperplasia
Osteoarthritis of Bone Hyperplasia (arthritis) refers to occur in the human body and its surrounding tissues by inflammation, trauma, infection, degradation or inflammatory disease caused by other factors, can be divided into dozens of.Arthritis patients in our country has more than 100 million, and the number is increasing.Clinical manifestations of the joints, such as redness, swelling, heat, pain, dysfunction, and joint deformities, serious cause joint deformity, affect patients' quality of life.According to the statistics, more than 50, half of the risk of osteoarthritis, 65, 90% of women and 90% of men over the age of the crowd with osteoarthritis.The prevalence was 0.34% ~ 0.36% in our country, serious life shortens the 10 ~ 15 years.
The cause of
Arthritis etiology of complex, mainly with inflammation, autoimmune reaction, infection, metabolic disorders, trauma, degenerative diseases and other factors.According to the cause of arthritis can be divided into rheumatoid, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic, osseous and purulent.
Many diseases can cause joint inflammatory pathological changes, clinical more common arthritis has the following kinds:
Also called degenerative joint disease, joint disease.Bone hyperplasia, is closely related to the aging, most old people are likely to be associated with bone hyperplasia, naturally prone to osteoarthritis.Clinical data showed that people under age 45 osteoarthritis prevalence is only 2%, while more than 65 - year - old crowd morbidity rates as high as 68%.The doctor seems to elderly are suffering from varying degrees of osteoarthritis.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis
The disease is often characterized by small joint pain (finger joints, wrist joints, etc.), and the joints are symmetry.Rheumatoid arthritis, 80% between 35 to 50 years old, but the old man, young children also.Because of its etiology and genetic, infection has complex relationship, environment, immunization, clinical still cannot effect a radical cure thoroughly, only through the medication control, maintain joint function.
3. Ankylosing spondylitis
More performance for the spine, sacroiliac joints, such as joint axis lesions.Etiology is not clear, it is generally believed to genetic factors, environmental factors interaction.Men see more, the disease onset age before the age of 40, severe cases can cause spinal and joint deformity and affect daily life.
4. The reactive arthritis
Because of the joint such as the intestinal system, urinary system infection factor triggering inflammatory joint disease.Reduce the infection rate, improve immunity have certain prevention and cure function.
5. Gouty arthritis
Due to the accumulation of urate crystals, arthritis.Disease is more acute unilateral arthritis to foot big toe swelling, pain as the main symptoms, suddenly pain "sorrow", course of the last week or so can alleviate, like the wind in the past, so called "gout", but easy to relapse.Oxidation prevention method is effective to prevent the nucleic acid by oxidation decomposition, thus reducing the endogenous purine (80%), and then reduce the generation of uric acid.At the same time change life eating habits, eat less animal innards, seafood, beer, liquor, such as exogenous purine, thereby reducing uric acid.
Clinical manifestations of
Had longer duration of most arthritis, painless, lingering in the treatment of intractable.Therefore, accomplish early discovery, early diagnosis, early treatment, is beneficial to prevent arthritis disease progress, improve the prognosis of patients.
1. Joint pain
Arthritis is the main performance.Different types of arthritis pain can show different characteristics.
2. Joint swelling
Swelling is one of the main performance of joint inflammation, is also the result of the progress in inflammation, is associated with the degree of joint pain may not.The general is proportional to the disease.
3. The joint dysfunction
Joint pain and inflammation caused by tissue oedema around joints, muscle cramps and protective around joint structure was damaged, result in joint activities is limited.Chronic arthritis due to restricted joint activities for a long time, can lead to permanent joint function loss.
4. The signs
Different types of arthritis symptoms are different, can appear erythema, deformity, soft tissue swelling, joint swelling, drainage, bony swelling, bone fricative, tenderness, muscle atrophy or muscle weakness, joint limited range and signs such as nerve root compression.
1. The laboratory tests
(1) general examination of blood routine, routine urine and blood sedimentation, c-reactive protein, biochemical (liver, kidney, A/G), immunoglobulin, protein electrophoresis, complement, etc.Routine blood, protein electrophoresis, immune complex and serum complement, and other general indicators in the normal range.Patients with synovitis can appear moderately elevated c-reactive protein (CRP) and blood sedimentation rate (ESR) slightly faster.Secondary arthritis patients can appear the checks on the laboratory abnormalities of the primary disease.
(2) the autoantibodies rheumatoid factor, annular citrulline and IgA, antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor IgG weeks factor, antibodies against keratin, and antinuclear antibodies, resistance to ENA.
(3) genetic markers HLA DR4 and HLA - DR1 subtypes.
2. Imaging studies
(1) X-ray joint X-ray visible soft tissue swelling, osteoporosis and progression of the subchondral bone sclerosis and (or) joint surface cystic change, invasive bone destruction, joint surface fuzzy, asymmetry and dislocation of joint space narrowing, joint fusion.Edge joint hyperplasia and osteophyte formation or with different degree of joint effusion, partly visible intra-articular loose bodies or joint deformation.
(2) with CT examination of joint CT and chest CT examination.
(3) of the MRI joint MRI of joint disease found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis early is very helpful.
(4) the ultrasonic joint ultrasound is simple non-invasive examination, for synovitis and joint effusion and joint damage identification.
3. The special inspection
(1) arthrocentesis for joint cavity effusion of joints, joint fluid examination including: joint fluid training and testing system of rheumatoid factor, and polarized light detection identify gout urate crystals.
(2) the arthroscopy and joint synovial biopsy for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of arthritis are valuable.
1. Rheumatoid arthritis
Is a kind of common acute or chronic inflammation of connective tissue.Can break out repeatedly and involvement of the heart.Clinical characteristics of joints and muscles pain wandering.Allergic diseases.Is one of the main performance of rheumatic fever, to more acute onset of the fever and joint pain.Typical performance is mild or moderate fever, wandering arthritis, the affected joints for knee, ankle, shoulder, elbow, wrist, such as large joints, by a common joint transfer to another joints, local lesion presents the redness, swelling, heat, pain, some patients also has several joint disease at the same time.Not typical patients with joint pain without other inflammation, acute inflammation in general 2 ~ 4 weeks receded, leaving no sequela, but often break out repeatedly.If rheumatism activity affects the heart, it can happen myocarditis, even left heart valve disease.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis
The disease is one of the most common types of chronic arthritis.And genetic, environmental factors, including smoking, bacteria and virus infection.Can occur at any age, but more women aged 40 ~ 60.American rheumatism association in 1987 revision of the classification criteria of rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis condition (article 4 can be confirmed or higher) :
(1) morning stiffness lasts at least 1 hour (6 weeks) or higher.
(2) three or more than three joints involved (6 weeks) or higher.
(3) the joints (wrist), joint or proximal interphalangeal involvement (6 weeks) or higher.
(4) symmetry arthritis (6 weeks) or higher.
(5) have rheumatoid nodules under the skin.
(6) X ray film change hand joint (show the joints and adjacent osteoporosis or obvious phenomenon of decalcified, joint space narrow).
(7) serum rheumatoid factor positive (drop degree > 1:32).
See more at medium, the elderly, most slow onset process.Hand, knee, hip and spine, easy involvement and palm means less affected, wrist, and other joints.Condition usually follow activity and increase or reduce due to rest.Morning stiffness time to less than half an hour.Hands visible Heberden involvement in physical examination and Bouchard nodules, the knee joint can reach the friction.The joints such as not accompanied by subcutaneous nodules and vasculitis.Rheumatoid factor is negative, a few elderly patients can have low degree of positive.
4. Gouty arthritis
Gout is a purine metabolic abnormalities caused increase in uric acid synthesis of metabolic disease.When abnormal renal function due to renal uric acid clearance decreased can also cause uric acid levels.Plasma uric acid in the saturated, causing uric acid sodium single crystal deposition around the distal joint relative lack of vascular tissue.The emergence of this kind of crystal can lead to acute inflammatory synovitis of single joint or joint.Gout is relatively rare in the male, affected area of the great toe is the most common.Most patients with gout will happen at some point in their life first plantar toe joints involved.Other possible involvement of the foot area, heel, and ankle foot back.
5. Ankylosing spondylitis
More young men, have obvious tendency of the familial.With axial joints, such as the sacroiliac and spinal joints involved is given priority to, also can appear peripheral joints involved, but more performance for lower limb joints, as the asymmetry of swelling and pain, and often accompanied by spines, big rotor, Achilles tendon, ridge rib pain in joints, tendons and ligaments such as attachment points.Pathological changes serious when can appear stiff spine, cervical spine, lumbar spine, thoracic activity limitations, appear "hump", seriously affects patients' daily life.Outside the joint performance of iridocyclitis, heart block barriers and aortic atresia is not congruent.X ray film visible sacroiliac joint attacks, destroy or fusion.More than 90% of the patients with HLA B27 positive, and rheumatoid factor negative.
6. Reactive arthritis
Hard, the onset of the disease before onset often intestinal or history of urinary tract infection.In large joints, especially lower limb joints, asymmetry involvement is given priority to, there is no symmetry fingers proximal interphalangeal joint, wrist joint involvement, etc.May be accompanied by eye inflammation, urethritis, balanitis and fever, HLA, B27 rheumatoid factor can be positive and negative, the patient can appear asymmetric X-ray sacroiliac arthritis.
7. Infectious arthritis
Related to bacterial infection.Common pathogenic bacteria including staphylococcus aureus, pneumonic diplococcus, neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, streptococcus, mycobacterium tuberculosis.Pathogenesis including directly caused by bacterial infection and infection in the process of pathogenic bacteria release toxins or metabolites including subacute bacterial endocarditis, scarlet fever after arthritis, etc.Directly caused by a bacterial infection of arthritis characterized by thermal pain, joint swelling and joint dysfunction.Lower limbs weight-bearing joints asymmetry involvement.Large joints involved, such as the hips and knees.Articular cavity puncture fluid often assumes the fester sex change.Smear or culture can find bacteria.Mti osteoarthritis occurs in young, evidence including with other parts of the tuberculosis lung or lymph node tuberculosis.Nodular lupus, rheumatoid factor serum is negative.The tuberculin test positive.Arthritis caused by a bacteria metabolites toxins or 1 ~ 2 weeks can self-healing, joint symptoms in the wandering.
Traumatic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, bowel disease such as arthritis, etc.Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (sle) and sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma and tumor in the occurrence and development of disease also often appear in the process of the performance of arthritis.
1. Drug treatment
Based on the characteristics of the species, symptoms of arthritis, concomitant diseases, and so on and so forth to choose the appropriate treatment.Treatment principle is early diagnosis and reasonable, as early as possible combination.The commonly used drug rheumatism is as follows:
(1) the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) can inhibit prostaglandin synthesis and anti-inflammatory analgesic effect quickly and has good effect to relieve the pain, to relieve headaches, muscle pain, including osteoarthritis with joint pain, the drugs work fast, metabolised by the body, once the metabolic pain again immediately, to maintain a short time.Can't change the course of the disease.Commonly used clinically with ibuprofen, penicillamine, double phenolic acid, aspirin, indomethacin, etc.
(2) cartilage protective agent such as glucosamine sulfate can promote the synthesis of cartilage, inhibit the decomposition of articular cartilage, at the same time also has anti-inflammatory effects.Glucosamine sulfate contains sulfuric acid in the root is an essential ingredient of the synthesis of cartilage matrix.Such drugs can relieve pain symptoms, improve joint function, long-term use (more than 2 years) will also be able to delay the destruction of the joint structure.Glucosamine sulfate work slower, but drug safety, for foundation treatment for long-term use.
(3) slow action anti-rheumatism medicine for rheumatoid arthritis (ra) and seronegatie spinal joint disease.To control the disease has certain effect but work is slow.Commonly used with gold mixture (intramuscular injection or oral), penicillamine, willow nitrogen sulfanilamide pyridine, chloroquine, etc.
(4) the cytotoxic drugs immune inhibition through different channels.Commonly used with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, gold spring alone, etc.Often they are systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and vasculitis second-line drugs, side effects, although more and more serious, but after the large role in the improvement of these diseases.
(5) the adrenal cortical hormone is anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic drugs, obviously improved the healing of the connective tissue disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (sle), but it can't cure these diseases.Its many side effects increases with increasing doses and the treatment extension, if long-term use can increase of articular cartilage damage and symptoms of osteoarthritis.So when applied to measure its curative effect and side effects and careful selection.
(6) antibiotics such as streptococcus infection can lead to rheumatic arthritis, acute phase using penicillin is the most effective drug control of streptococcus infection, acute rheumatic fever in patients with long-term use of effective antibiotics to prevent the happening of the long-term rheumatic carditis, adult prevention shall not be less than 5 years, children maintain at least 18 years old.Tuberculous arthritis, fungal arthritis should be positive and effective anti-tb or anti-fungal drugs.
(7) the treatment of gouty arthritis include drug therapy in the acute phase of high doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids or colchicine and remission in lowering uric acid treatment.Drop uric acid drugs including inhibition of uric acid generated classes of allopurinol and promoting uric acid excretion of benzene bromide Malone.
2. The surgical therapy
Surgical treatment including articular cavity puncture, synovectomy, orthopaedic joint replacement and joints, joint fusion, etc.
3. A bone marrow transplant
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has remarkable curative effect.Prompted by restore immune system function recovery of patients with bone marrow transplants, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in children have achieved good results.
4. The immune and biological treatment
Such treatment is aimed at the main steps of arthritis disease and lead to disease progress, like molecular targets for cytokine therapy, plasma exchange, immune purification, reconstruction of ectomesenchymal stem cell transplantation, etc., mainly applied to other treatment approaches, rapid progress and refractory severe arthritis, mainly for rheumatoid arthritis.
5. Other treatment
Including physical, rehabilitation, vocational training and psychological treatment.Physical therapy mainly has the following kinds: dc ammeter and drug iontophoresis, low frequency impulse electrotherapy, intermediate frequency electric current therapy, high frequency electrotherapy, magnetic therapy, ultrasonic therapy, acupuncture, infrared, ultraviolet, cold light therapy treatment.Rehabilitation, vocational training, with emphasis on the functional exercise and lifestyle adjustments, conditional hospital, shall be carried out under the guidance of rehabilitation specialist functional exercise.
Arthritis etiology, course, individual differences and the treatment method is different, its prognosis is also different.Reactive arthritis, most of the patients in the course of a self-limited, fade in 3 ~ 5 months.In nearly a decade, with the slow action early joint application of anti-rheumatism medicine treatment for extra-articular lesions and new therapies appear constantly, make the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (ra) has been improved significantly.Most of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis can get very good control, and even complete response.
The prevention of
1. Avoid induced arthritis environmental factors of the disease
Moist environment helps some pathogenic bacteria growth, and the incidence of arthritis.Therefore, at ordinary times should pay attention to health, maintain indoor ventilation, and air is good, moisture, heat preservation, avoid pathogen spread especially streptococcus.In addition, other environmental factors, such as uv, certain chemicals contact, may result in certain susceptible to produce abnormal immune response, lead to different arthritis, and vulnerable groups should avoid strong ultraviolet ray, and some chemical contact.
2. A reasonable diet, maintain good way of life
Nutrient deficiency can lead to arthritis is aggravating, and nutrition surplus, obesity may induce or aggravate the gouty arthritis, osteoarthritis, therefore, scientific and reasonable diet is to prevent some arthritis measures, such as reducing animal offal, seafood, poultry, beans and other foods that are rich in purines, can effectively prevent the gouty arthritis.Smokers suffer from significantly increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis, smoking has become one of the precaution of rheumatoid arthritis.
3. Moderate exercise, keep happy, improve the body immunity
The immune system's stability and mood.Many patients are clinically after a negative life events in autoimmune diseases, therefore, be optimistic and stable mentality, is advantageous to the prevention of autoimmune diseases caused by arthritis.